All parties to the conflict must ensure that civilians are protected.
Over 500,000 people have fled to neighboring areas, as indiscriminate shelling by government forces and ISIS has led to civilian deaths. ISIS has summarily killed detainees; evidence points to a pattern of retaliatory extrajudicial executions by government forces and Shi'a militias.
Over a decade of human rights violations by Iraq's government has left communities scarred and is widely seen as a significant factor in widespread popular discontent. The US government must push the Iraqi central government for overdue reforms.